1. Перепишите следующие предложения и письменно переведите их на русский язык. Обратите внимание на особенности перевода сослагательного наклонения
1. I wish the test irony against me was false.
2. I had better be not involved in the case connected with blackmail.
3. The government would rather not put into effect that compromising law.
4. If only the eyewitness could nor testify in favour of the victim!
5. You sound as though you were more of a detective man a lawyer.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на предлоги.
1. By gathering information, creating publicity and writing letters, Amnesty has helped to speed up the release of such prisoners all over the world.
2. The choice may depend upon which case is easier to prove and whether the passenger is likely to get larger damages under the law of contract or the law of tort.
3. In the USA statutes must be in keeping with the constitutions – federal and state – and the courts can overrule a statute that is found to violate constitutional provisions.
3. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст. Дайте определение слову “Legalese”.
Although lawyers come from a variety of backgrounds and do a variety of work, as a profession they often appear rather remote and difficult to understand. Perhaps one reason for this is legalese — the strange and incomprehensible language so many lawyers seem to write and speak. This is not just a feature of English-speaking lawyers. People all over the world complain that they cannot understand court proceed¬ings or legal documents.
Of course all professions have their own jargon. The use of some special words can be justified because they refer to matters which are important to a particular profession but not important to most people in everyday life. But sometimes it seems that jargon is a way of creating a mystery about a profession of distinguishing people on the inside (economist, doctors, teachers) from those on the outside.
In recent times lawyers have made efforts to make their profession less mysterious. After all, their job is supposed to be to clarify matters for the public, not to make them more complicated! This is particularly so in the United States where lawyers openly advertise their services to the public and where special clothes and wigs, still a feature of the English system, have mostly disappeared. But it seems likely that legalese will survive for a long time to come. One reason for this is that old docu¬ments and reports of old cases have great importance in law, particularly in common law systems. Another reason is that rewriting laws is a slow and painstaking process. The words must try to cover every eventuality, because people are always looking for a legal loophole, a way of avoiding a legal duty by making use of an ambiguity or an omission in law. Consequently if there is an existing law which has worked for a long time, even a law which contains old language in long and complex sentences, it is easier to retain the old law than write a new one. Even when a government draws up a new law it is often guided by the working of an older law.
4. Перепишите следующие предложения, обращая внимание на придаточные предложения. Предложения переведите на русский язык.
1. The term “punishment” means those measures which in different ways involve restriction of certain rights.
2. Life in the country isn’t what is used to be, you know.
3. Barristers are the court-room lawyers, whose wigs and robes are familiar to anyone who has seen motion pictures or stage plays about English trials.
4. The Lord Chief Justice, who presides over the Queen’s Bench Division of the High Court, normally sits when criminal appeals are under consideration.
5. Meg loved her little brother to whom she had been a second mother.
6. The police arrested the person they have been searching for several months.
7. Even if a lawyer is very competent, he must take care not to break the many rules of procedure and ethics set by the body which regulates his profession.
5. Перепишите следующие предложения. Укажите, в каком значении употребляется в них глаголы should / would. Предложения переведите.
1. It’s important that they should know their rights.
2. If we had time we would conclude the contract.
3. The boy shouldn’t gone out without the permission.
4. I would rather arrest him earlier.
6. Перепишите и письменно переведите на русский язык, приводимый ниже текст.
Civil Liberties and Rights (I)
Sometimes they use two terms, civil liberties and civil rights, inter¬changeably, although their meanings are different.
Civil liberties are freedoms that are guaranteed to the individual. Civil liberties declare what the government cannot do; in contrast, civil rights declare what the government must do or provide.
Civil rights are powers or privileges that are guaranteed to the individu¬al and protected from arbitrary removal at the hands of the government or other individuals. The right to vote and the right to jury trial in criminal cases are civil rights.
Civil rights and civil liberties overlap with individual rights and liberties, but belong more to the area of social and public interests than do individ¬ual rights, which belong mainly to the area of individual interests. They are concerned essentially with what individuals and groups may do within the law, e.g. stand for election to a public authority, rather than with what they may exact, e.g. social security. Civil rights may be regarded as attempts to give meaning to the ideal of equality under laws, and civil liberties as flowing from the ideal of freedom.
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