I. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения глаголов should и would.
1. The engineer should know both the advantages and the disadvantages of the materials used.
2. Without mathematics there would be no science, no electronic computers, no atomic energy, no conquest of space.
3. If we placed this material in vacuum, its mechanical properties would be changed.
II. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, принимая во внимание, что инфинитивные и причастные обороты соответствуют придаточным предложениям.
1. The method used depends on the length to be measured.
2. Silicon is known to be the basic material for electronic industry.
3. Any element is characterized by a certain number of protons in the nucleus this number being the same as the number of electrons in the atom.
4. Scientists today believe all substances to be made of one or more different kinds of atoms.
5. Unless treated this material must not be used in space technology.
III. Перепишите предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на различные значения выделенных слов.
1. Radar is used in airplane and ship navigation as well as in other fields of science and engineering.
2. The transformer is a device used for raising or lowering voltage.
3. The new plastics will be used as insulators both in electrical and electronic circuits.
IV. Прочтите и устно переведите на русский язык с 1-го по 5-й абзацы текста. Перепишите и письменно переведите 2, 4 и 5-й абзацы.
Пояснения к тексту
1. vacuum tube - электронная лампа
2. operating current - рабочий ток
3. transistorized circuitry - цепь, собранная на транзисторах
4. tunnel diode - туннельный диод
5. ring radio set - радиоприемник, встроенный в кольцо
1. То separate electronics from the concepts of electricity is extremely difficult. The field of electricity is generally concerned with magnetism, light, heating and the production of electricity by generators and chemical action.
2. Electronics usually deals with the application of electricity in communications, in radio, television and other devices where vacuum tubes1 and transistors are employed. We know the vacuum tube and the transistor to be major components of various electronic devices.
3. The many disadvantages of vacuum tubes include high cost, bulky construction, high amount of operating current2, limited life and high operating temperature. However the vacuum tube is ideal in many situations where electrical energy is readily available and where heat is no problem.
4. A more recent invention - the transistor - is known to have replaced the vacuum tube in many situations. The transistor operates on a minimum amount of electrical energy, emits very little heat and has along life. The transistor is tiny compared to the size of the vacuum tube of equivalent energy output. This feature has permitted an electronic circuit to be so small that the electronic technician uses magnifying lenses to aid him in his circuit construction and repair.
5. Later research has revealed a device which has revolutionized the field of transistorized circuitry3. A Japanese investigator, Lew Esaki, discovered a simple semiconductor class of crystal that is even more amazing than the transistor. The tunnel diode4, as it is called, operates on a negligible amount of electric current, its diameter being some few thousandths of an inch. With such a transistor man will be able to see telephones to be worn on wrists, pocket-size TV sets and ring radio sets5.
6. Several recent developments in the field of electronics have led to better ways to communicate efficiently over long distances. The maser and the laser permit man to beam extremely coherent and concentrated energy with almost no loss of intensity. Lasers and masers are known to have been used for transmitting power, radio waves and other waves used in communication.
V. Прочтите 6-й абзац текста и письменно ответьте на следующий вопрос:
Where will lasers and masers be used?
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